Panaji: An independent verification of Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) programme carried out under the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) 2018-19 from November 2018 to February 2019 had found only 73.1 per cent villages in Goa to be open defecation free.
The survey conducted under the World Bank support project to SBM-G had found no visible faeces in the area that were used for open defecation in the past.
The agency surveyed 390 households across 27 villages in the state with a detailed questionnaire on access to toilet, functionality of toilets and safe disposal mechanism of human waste from toilet as well as safe disposal of solid and waste water waste.
The data suggested that only 34.6 per cent villages in Goa were clean and found with minimal littering and water-logging which was still below the national average of 40 per cent in non-ODF village category.
The states where less than 99 per cent villages were open defecation free were Jammu and Kashmir (97.5 per cent), West Bengal (95.8 per cent), Telangana (91.5 per cent), Andhra Pradesh (88.2 per cent), Puducherry and Madhya Pradesh (84.6 per cent), Karnataka (82.1 per cent), Bihar (73.7 per cent), Goa (73.1 per cent) and Odisha (60.1 per cent).
States where percentage of clean villages is lower than 50 per cent are Madhya Pradesh (47.2 per cent), Arunachal Pradesh (46.2 per cent), J&K (41.8 per cent), Jharkhand (40.8 per cent), Puducherry (26.9 per cent), Odisha (19.4 per cent), Tripura (19.2 per cent), Bihar (17 per cent) and Assam (16.9 per cent).
Instances of open defecation along the roads were reported in 84.6 per cent of villages in Goa followed by Bihar (82.5 per cent) and Odisha (70.7 per cent).
The data revealed that 96.2 per cent of the villages in Goa reported instances of open defecation followed by J&K (98.7 per cent), West Bengal (98.6 per cent), Karnataka (95.5 per cent), Telangana (94.5 per cent), Andhra Pradesh (92.6 per cent), Puducherry and Madhya Pradesh (92.3 per cent each), Bihar (86.9 per cent) and Odisha (82.3 per cent).
The functionality status of the toilet was also studied by observing four components in the toilet like whether pan/seat was completely broken, pan was choked, pits/tanks were completely covered and pipes were broken or open.
However, the state-wise analysis of data shows that the households of majority of the states reported to have more than 98 per cent functional toilets.
But only few states like Madhya Pradesh (97.8 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (97.7 per cent), Assam (97.6 per cent), Punjab and Goa (97.3 per cent each), Tamil Nadu (96.9 per cent), Jharkhand (96.4 per cent) and Odisha (96 per cent) were with functionality below 98 per cent.
Toilets were considered in hygienic condition based on a set of criteria. The criteria were i) whether the toilet was connected to a tank/pit or to a sewer system, ii) availability of fly proof seal (water trap/lid/other) in the toilet and iii) presence of no visible human excreta in the squatting area.
At an overall level, states of Kerala, Gujarat and Haryana universally reported to have hygienic household toilets while the states which have hygienic toilet in less than 90 per cent households include Goa (85.9 per cent), Odisha (85.5 per cent) and Jharkhand (84.4 per cent).